We aim to understand the biological and cognitive mechanisms underlying symptoms and response to treatment. Our studies use an integrative approach to investigate the brain systems involved, using in vivo imaging and other techniques. There are three converging themes. The first theme centres around the role of dopamine in psychotic disorders. The second theme investigates the regulation of dopamine by glutamate, GABA and other mechanisms. The third theme integrates data across measures to investigate the neural networks involved in these disorders.
We study high risk groups, the link to positive and negative symptoms, and developing new potential treatments and treatment predictors.
Studies generally involve healthy volunteer and patients using imaging and other biological and cognitive measures, as well as back translation into preclinical models.
Selected media links:
Regions of elevated dopamine synthesis capacity in red in the brains of people developing psychosis (A). A loss of normal brain connectivity (B) as people develop psychosis (C), particularly in the anterior cingulate cortex, highlighted with yellow arrows.
Selvaraj S, Walker C, Arnone D, Cao B, Faulkner P, Cowen PJ, Roiser JP, Howes O. (2018). Effect of Citalopram on Emotion Processing in Humans: A Combined 5-HT1A [11C]CUMI-101 PET and Functional MRI Study. Neuropsychopharmacology doi: 10.1038/npp.2017.166.
Jauhar S, Nour MM, Veronese M, Rogdaki M, Bonoldi I, Azis M, Turkheimer F, McGuire P, Young AH, Howes OD. (2017). A Test of the Transdiagnostic Dopamine Hypothesis of Psychosis Using Positron Emission Tomographic Imaging in Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry 74(12), 1206-1213.
Jauhar S, Veronese M, Rogdaki M, Bloomfield M, Natesan S, Turkheimer F, Kapur S, Howes OD. (2017). Regulation of dopaminergic function: an [18F]-DOPA PET apomorphine challenge study in humans. Transl Psychiatry 7(2):e1027.
Howes OD, McCutcheon R, Owen MJ, Murray RM. (2017). The Role of Genes, Stress, and Dopamine in the Development of Schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 81(1), 9-20.
Bloomfield MA, Ashok AH, Volkow ND, Howes OD. (2016). The effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the dopamine system. Nature 17, 539(7629), 369-377.
Bloomfield PS, Selvaraj S, Veronese M, Rizzo G, Bertoldo A, Owen DR, Bloomfield MA, Bonoldi I, Kalk N, Turkheimer F, McGuire P, de Paola V, Howes OD. (2016). Microglial Activity in People at Ultra High Risk of Psychosis and in Schizophrenia: An [(11)C]PBR28 PET Brain Imaging Study. Am J Psychiatry 173(1), 44-52.
Howes OD, Murray RM. (2014). Schizophrenia: an integrated sociodevelopmental-cognitive model. Lancet 383(9929), 1677–1687.
Selvaraj S, Mouchlianitis E, Faulkner P, Turkheimer F, Cowen PJ, Roiser JP, Howes O. (2014). Presynaptic serotoninergic regulation of emotional processing: A multimodal brain imaging study. Biological Psychiatry.
Stokes PR, Shotbolt P, Mehta MA, Turkheimer E, Benecke A, Copeland C, Turkheimer FE, Lingford-Hughes AR, Howes OD. (2013). Nature or nurture? determining the heritability of human striatal dopamine function: an [18F]-DOPA PET study. Neuropsychopharmacology 38(3), 485–491.
Demjaha A, Murray RM, McGuire PK, Kapur S, Howes OD. (2012). Dopamine synthesis capacity in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry 169(11), 1203–1210.
Selvaraj S, Turkheimer F, Rosso L, Faulkner P, Mouchlianitis E, Roiser JP, McGuire P, Cowen PJ, Howes O. (2012). Measuring endogenous changes in serotonergic neurotransmission in humans: a [11C]CUMI-101 PET challenge study. Molecular Psychiatry 17(12), 1254–1260.
Howes O, Bose S, Turkheimer F, Valli I, Egerton A, Stahl D, Valmaggia L, Allen P, Murray R, McGuire P. (2011). Progressive increase in striatal dopamine synthesis capacity as patients develop psychosis: a PET study. Molecular Psychiatry 16(9), 885–886.